John Cowan cowan at
Sat Jan 7 19:03:05 CET 2017

On Sat, Jan 7, 2017 at 12:18 PM, Michael Everson <everson at>

I don’t think a generative mechanism for hooking up languages for this
> scenario makes sense at all. The number of actual contact languages is
> small enough.

Code-switching as a behavior seems to happen wherever there is bilingualism,
whether stable or not.  The relatively short WP.en article gives examples of
Spanish-English, Shona-English, Hindi-English, Swahili-English,
French-Tamil, and Hopi-Tewa.  Countries where bi- and multilingualism are
common are riddled with code-switching: the Philippines in particular seem
to have a great deal of it, involving not only the colonial languages but
code-switching between different Philippine languages as well.

It’s rare to find books or other materials in them.

That is a more cogent point.

John Cowan        cowan at
Even the best of friends cannot attend each others' funeral.
        --Kehlog Albran, The Profit
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