John Cowan cowan at
Sat Jan 7 00:51:16 CET 2017

On Fri, Jan 6, 2017 at 5:01 PM, Shawn Steele <Shawn.Steele at>

I’m not sure that is necessarily true.  One scenario is Hinglish where the
> English bits are mostly technical words.  One need not fully understand
> English to be able to use “Internet” and other technical words – though one
> would have to understand that subset of English.

That's exactly the difference between code-switching and mere heavy
borrowing, as in my "French in its purity" example.  The first text is
English-French code-switching, whereas the second is French that happens
(because of its content) to have a lot of recent English loan-words.  The
Angloromani example is likewise English with Romany borrowings.

 John Cowan        cowan at
Winter:  MIT, / Keio, INRIA, / Issue lots of Drafts.
So much more to understand! / Might simplicity return?
                (A "tanka", or extended haiku)
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