How various TLDs use IDN variants

Paul Hoffman paul.hoffman at
Fri Oct 12 00:45:06 CEST 2012

Of possible interest to this list. John Levine and I are putting together this catalog so that people talking about "variants" at the TLD level can see what is actually deployed. This is *not* an IETF effort, and will be submitted to the Independent Stream for RFC publication in the not-distant future. We're definitely interested in corrections and additions to the list of gTLD/sTLD practices.

--Paul Hoffman

Begin forwarded message:

> From: internet-drafts at
> Subject: I-D Action: draft-levine-tld-variant-01.txt
> Date: October 11, 2012 3:26:13 PM PDT
> To: i-d-announce at
> Reply-To: internet-drafts at
> A New Internet-Draft is available from the on-line Internet-Drafts directories.
> 	Title           : Variants in Second-Level Names Registered in Top Level Domains
> 	Author(s)       : John Levine
>                          Paul Hoffman
> 	Filename        : draft-levine-tld-variant-01.txt
> 	Pages           : 10
> 	Date            : 2012-10-11
> Abstract:
>   IDNA [RFC5890] provides a method to map a subset of names written in
>   Unicode into the DNS.  Some languages allow a particular name to be
>   written in multiple ways that are represented differently in IDNA,
>   known as "variants".  This document surveys the approaches that
>   ICANN-contracted top level domains have taken to the registration and
>   provisioning of variant names.  This document is not (and will not
>   be) a product of the IETF, and does not (and will not) propose any
>   method to make variants work "correctly".
> The IETF datatracker status page for this draft is:
> There's also a htmlized version available at:
> A diff from the previous version is available at:

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